Rose Gottemoeller has been NATO Deputy Secretary General since 2016, after serving as Under Secretary for Arms Control and International Security at the US Department of State. She was acting in this position from 2012 to 2014, while concurrently serving as Assistant Secretary of State for the Bureau of Arms Control, Verification and Compliance (2009-2014). In this capacity, she was the Chief US negotiator of the New START with the Russian Federation, which entered into force in 2011 and is currently in implementation. Beginning in 2000 she was a Senior Associate with the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, and she served as Director of the Carnegie Moscow Center (2006-2008). From 1998 to 2000 she was Deputy Under Secretary of Energy for Defense Nuclear Nonproliferation and before that, Assistant Secretary and Director for Nonproliferation and National Security at the US Department of Energy. Prior to her work at the Department of Energy, Rose Gottemoeller served for three years as Deputy Director of the International Institute for Strategic Studies in London. From 1993 to 1994, she worked in the National Security Council as Director for Russia, Ukraine and Eurasia Affairs.